Ottawa Model of Research Use: A Framework for Adopting Innovations

A summary of

Graham, I. D., & Logan. J. (2004). Innovations in knowledge transfer and continuity of care. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 36(2), 89-103.

How to cite this NCCMT summary:

National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2010). Ottawa Model of Research Use: A Framework for Adopting Innovations. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University. (Updated 30 August, 2010) Retrieved from http://www.nccmt.ca/resources/search/65.

Categories: Method, Implement, Evaluate, KT theories, Organizational capacity and management, Program planning, Situational assessment

These summaries are written by the NCCMT to condense and to provide an overview of the resources listed in the Registry of Methods and Tools and to give suggestions for their use in a public health context. For more information on individual methods and tools included in the review, please consult the authors/developers of the original resources.

Relevance for Public Health

This method would be useful for coordinating the implementation of a new public health policy or program across multiple organizations, such as school-based alcohol or drug education programs or sexual health programs.

Description

Effecting changes across multiple settings and organizations can be challenging. This six-step approach was developed within the context of continuity-of-care innovations. The method uses the Ottawa Model of Research Use, a knowledge translation model, to guide the process of transferring research into practice.

Continuity-of-care innovations are particularly complex given that multiple sectors, settings, agencies and provider groups are often involved. The developers briefly discuss two broad types of knowledge translation theories and models relevant for continuity-of-care innovations.

Classical theories (also known as descriptive or normative theories) are theories of change that view innovation adoption as passive, and look at the naturalistic process of change. These theories look at the characteristics of the innovation and potential adopters as influencing the change process.

Planned change theories view innovation adoption as deliberately planned processes. Graham's Ottawa Model of Research Use is an example of a planned change theory. Although planned change theories may involve working with individuals, their aim is to effect change at the organizational and systems level. These theories help administrators control factors that will influence the likelihood of changes occurring at the organizational level and how these changes occur. Planned change theories inform the Knowledge-to-Action process (KTA), a comprehensive knowledge translation model developed by Graham and others at the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). CIHR adopted the KTA process approach to conceptualize knowledge translation as encompassing knowledge synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application.

Specific to the Ottawa Model of Research Use, the developers discuss three implicit assumptions of knowledge translation:

  • Dynamic and interactive processes between research development and use reflect the complex nature of knowledge translation.
  • Patients/clients are central throughout knowledge translation processes, since their health outcomes are the main focus of evidence-based practice.
  • Knowledge translation processes are affected by external societal and health-care environments.

These environments need to be considered when planning and implementing innovations.

Implementing the Method/Tool
Steps for Using Method/Tool

The Ottawa Model of Research Use follows a six-step approach to guide the implementation of an innovation.

1) Set the Stage

  • Identify individuals with authority needed to make changes within organizations.
  • Determine available resources that can be used for innovation implementation.
  • Identify agents of change responsible for implementing the innovation.

2) Specify the Innovation

  • Clearly articulate what the innovation is and what implementation will involve.

3) Assess the Innovation, Potential Adopters and the Environment for Barriers and Facilitators

  • Conduct a situational assessment--determine current practice and identify any barriers and facilitators within the innovation, potential adopters and the practice environment that could influence adoption of the innovation.
  • Identify ways to overcome any barriers to implementation.
  • Identify perceptions and attitudes of potential adopters toward the innovation.
  • Identify gaps between current practice and recommended changes.

4) Select and Monitor the Knowledge Translation Strategies

  • Based on the situational assessment, select appropriate strategies and interventions to increase awareness of the innovation and understanding of the innovation, and provide skills or training for adopters to be able to carry out the innovation.
  • Supplement with follow-up interventions to the initial knowledge translation strategies. This may be particularly useful for innovations that involve a long learning curve or diverse groups of adopters.
  • Evaluate the knowledge translation strategies for effectiveness.

5) Monitor Innovation Adoption

  • Evaluate adoption of the innovation.
  • Determine the extent to which the innovation has spread throughout the organization and how practice has changed.
  • Assess if the knowledge translation strategies applied have been sufficient for effective innovation adoption, or if the knowledge translation strategies need to be changed or additional strategies are required.

6) Evaluate Outcomes of the Innovation

  • Evaluate the impact of the innovation on clients/patients, practitioners and systems to determine the effectiveness of the innovation.
Who is involved

Program directors, project specialists and supervisors would be involved as administrators and respondents of this resource. Program coordinators and other front-line staff would participate as respondents.

Conditions for Use
Not specified
Evaluation and Measurement Characteristics
Evaluation
Information not available
Validity
Information not available
Reliability
Information not available
Methodological Rating
Unknown/No evidence
Method/Tool Development
Developer(s)

Ian D. Graham, PhD

Affiliate Investigator, Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa Hosptial Research Institute Vice-President, Knowledge Translation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa (cross-appointment)

Jo Logan, RN, PhD

Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa

Affiliate Member, Ottawa Health Research Institute

Clinical Associate, Ottawa-Carleton Regional Women's Breast Health Centre

Method of Development

This resource was developed to provide an overview of theories and models of knowledge translation that are relevant to continuity-of-care interventions.

Release Date
2004
Contact Person/Source

Ian Graham, PhD

Canadian Institutes of Health Research

160 Elgin Street, Place Bell 9th Floor, AL 4809A Ottawa, ON

Email: igraham@cihr-irsc.gc.ca Telephone: 613-948-2318 Fax: 613-954-1800

Resources

Title of Primary Resource
Innovations in knowledge transfer and continuity of care.
File Attachment
None
Web-link
Reference
Graham, I. D., & Logan. J. (2004). Innovations in knowledge transfer and continuity of care. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 36(2), 89-103.
Type of Material
Journal article
Format
Periodical
Cost to Access
Journal article purchase
Language
English
Conditions for Use
Copyright © 2004 McGill University School of Nursing

Title of Supplementary Resource
Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map?
File Attachment
None
Web-link
Reference
Graham, I.D, et al. (2006). Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map? The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 26(1), 13-24.
Type of Material
Journal article
Format
Periodical
Cost to Access
Journal article purchase
Language
English
Conditions for Use
Copyright © 2006 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education

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