Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) Version 2018 User Guide

Hong, Q.N., Pluye, P., Fàbregues, S., Bartlett, G., Boardman, F., Cargo, M., et al. (2018). Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), version 2018. Registration of Copyright (#1148552), Canadian Intellectual Property Office, Industry Canada.

Canadian Template available Evaluated/validated En français


This tool is designed to critically appraise quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies included in systematic mixed-studies reviews. With a specific focus on mixed-methods studies, the tool outlines a set of criteria and screening questions to provide an overall quality score.

Steps for Using Method/Tool

The tool guides users through four steps:

  1. Apply the screening questions for all studies.
  2. For each relevant study, determine the type of design, and use the corresponding criteria to appraise the study’s quality.
  3. Two independent reviewers conduct the appraisal process.
  4. Determine an overall quality score for each study.


Hong, Q. N., Gonzalez-Reyes, A., & Pluye, P. (2018). Improving the usefulness of a tool for appraising the quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 24(3), 459-467.


Hong, Q.N., Pluye, P., Fàbregues, S., Bartlett, G., Boardman, F., Cargo, M., Dagenais, P., Gagnon, M.-P., Griffiths, F., Nicolau, B., O’Cathain, A., Rousseau, M.-C., Vedel, I. (2019). Improving the content validity of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT): A modified e-Delphi study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2019.03.008 (open access).


Souto, R., Khanassov, V., Hong, Q.N., Bush, P., Vedel, I., Pluye, P. (2015). Systematic mixed studies reviews: updating results on the reliability and efficiency of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1): 500-501. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.08.010

These summaries are written by the NCCMT to condense and to provide an overview of the resources listed in the Registry of Methods and Tools and to give suggestions for their use in a public health context. For more information on individual methods and tools included in the review, please consult the authors/developers of the original resources.

We have provided the resources and links as a convenience and for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by McMaster University of any of the products, services or opinions of the external organizations, nor have the external organizations endorsed their resources and links as provided by McMaster University. McMaster University bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of the external sites.

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